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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

CE.C&G.1.1 Explain how the tensions over power and authority led America’s founding fathers to develop a constitutional democracy (e.g., mercantilism, salutary neglect, taxation and representation, boycott and protest, independence, American Revolution, Articles of Confederation, Ben Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, Sons of Liberty, etc.)
CE.C&G.1.4 Analyze the principles and ideals underlying American democracy in terms of how they promote freedom (e.g., separation of powers, rule of law, limited government, democracy, consent of the governed / individual rights –life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, self-government, representative democracy, equal opportunity, equal protection under the law, diversity, patriotism, etc.).

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Explain how the tensions over power and authority led America’s founding fathers to develop a constitutional democracy with the Articles of Confederation
Evaluate the success of the Articles of Confederation
Construct an argument illustrating why the Articles of Confederation failed

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Articles of Confederation

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

Why did the Articles of Confederation fail?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Simulation- Teacher will change rules of the class when students enter. Students will not be allowed to talk, cannot eat, must pay the teacher for each lesson taught, and will be penalized with a 0 every time they violate the rules. Act this out for 1-2 minutes. Have students answer the following questions:
How did the rule changes make you feel?
If you could rewrite the rules, what would you write?
What do you think class would be like with your rules? Successes/Challenges you might face.

Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
Introduce the Word Map for “Articles of Confederation.” Explain that the Articles of Confederation were adopted in November 1777, after the Revolutionary War, as a new system of government for America. The Articles were a set of rules about who had power over what, and explained how the country would operate. It’s like “do’s and don’t’s” for the country – add that to the Word Map. As a class, discuss other “What It’s Like” examples, as well as “Examples” on the Word Map.

Vocabulary Strategy:
Word Map

Previewing (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Preview Word Map using the word “confederation”

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Cause-Effect-Results Graphic Organizer
Previewing (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Demonstrate how to do the graphic organizer using a review example (e.g. catalysts for sparking American Revolution).

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Students Partner Read informational article about the creation of the Articles of Confederation, and highlight important details. Partners switch out responsibilities at each paragraph: Partner 1 reads and highlights key details, while Partner 2 summarizes that paragraph on a sticky note, then switch roles.
Pairs Square and share their summaries.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Letter to the Absent Student: Explain how the tensions over power and authority led America’s leaders to create the Articles of Confederation.

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Interactive PowerPoint/Video Lecture on the Articles of Confederation. During lecture/videos, students work in Collaborative Pairs to identify weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation. Pairs write each weakness on a separate sticky note. At the conclusion of the lecture/video, sticky notes are placed on the whiteboard and grouped according to similarities. If all five of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation have not been identified, teacher will add the missing weakness(es). Weaknesses are added to the “Cause” column of the Cause-Effect-Results Graphic Organizer. Do a Think Aloud with the remaining sticky notes to determine if they are effects of the causes (five major weaknesses). Continue the Think Aloud with probing questions and prompts to elicit more effects for the causes. Add these to the “Effect” section of the Cause-Effect-Results Graphic Organizer.

Divide the class into seven groups, and assign each group one of the following informational articles:
The Federalist No. 15 (third and fourth paragraphs only)
Robert Morris to the President of Congress
Gouverneur Morris to John Jay
George Washington to James Warren
Rufus King to Elbridge Gerry
George Washington to John Jay
John Jay to Thomas Jefferson

Each group analyzes their document and answers group discussion questions. Each group then creates a movie poster, explaining the most important information from their reading.

Revisit the Cause-Effect-Results Graphic Organizer, and lead a class discussion to complete the Results section, based on the information provided by the seven groups.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Whole Group: Provide examples of weaknesses for each Article.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Were the Articles of Confederation a success or failure? How do you know? Use facts and reasoning to support your position.

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

RAFT:
ROLE: American citizen
AUDIENCE: Nation’s leaders
FORMAT: Speech
Topic: The failure of the Articles of Confederation

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:
The first two rows are more accessible audiences and formats. Roles and topics remain aligned to grade-level learning expectations.

More Challenge: The second two rows are more challenging topics and role, yet remain aligned to grade-level learning expectations.

Remediation: Students will rank the five weaknesses along a continuum. For each one students will provide examples and evidence. Students will organize each weakness according to which they thought was the greatest to the least. Pairs will share rankings and attempt to reach a consensus.

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