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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

LS.11 The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Key concepts include a) food production and harvest; b) change in habitat size, quality, or structure; c) change in species competition; d) population disturbances and factors that threaten or enhance species survival; and e) environmental issues.

W.7.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Describe conditions that lead to an organism becoming invasive
Determine patterns among invasive species
Evaluate effects of invasive species
Write to inform how invasive species impact an ecosystem

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Invasive Species
Nonnative
Effects on various groups when organisms are transported to new locations

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How does understanding patterns among invasive species help us make wise decisions?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Introduce the Lesson Essential Question. Underline invasive species. Discuss the word invasive / invaders (to take over, or to enter a new place in large numbers) and nonnative (alien).

Show the kudzu video:

1’s Why is kudzu considered an invasive species?
2’s What patterns do you think occur when a nonnative species is introduced into an ecosystem?

Key vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
determine patterns, nonnative, invasive species

Vocabulary Strategy:
Vocabulary Notebook Word Map

Previewing (what, who, when):
Preview how to do a Word Map using the word “Alien”.
Teach how to determine patterns. Create an Anchor Chart for how to determine patterns.

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Matrix:
Organism, Relocation, Impact

Previewing (what, who, when):
Teach how to use the Matrix Graphic Organizer using “animals”.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Provide paragraph numbers on the matrix to assist students with locating varying impacts of invasive species.

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Divide the class into groups of three. Distribute one of the unique objects representing a fictitious invasive or nonnative species to each group. Explain to the students that the classroom is the local environment supporting the native species, teachers and students. Right now, the environment is balanced and functioning well. This environment allows the students to learn and the teachers to teach each day. Ask each group to decide if their species will be invasive or nonnative. Instruct each group to decide how the classroom would change as their species reproduces. They should list potential impacts their species may have on the environment. (e.g. their species eats staples, so eventually the papers will be challenging to turn in or pass back). Ask students to create a name for their species and list at least four characteristics critical for the species’ survival (e.g. it eats pencils, needs to be in the dark for twenty hours of the day, etc.).

What are the characteristics of your species that make it able to be categorized as invasive or nonnative?
What makes your invasive species harmful to the environment?
If your species was introduced to your schools’ environment, how could you stop it from spreading and/or causing harm?
Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Provide a list of types of invasive and nonnative characteristics.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Groups will use a matrix to record key information and present their species to the class. Presentations must address all three guiding questions.

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Remind students about the “kudzu” problem with photo. Paired reading of kudzu article (reversing roles of reader and summarizer for each paragraph).
Numbered Heads: 1’s – what are the three causes for the spread of kudzu? 2’s – why is kudzu considered an invasive species?
Pairs work together to complete the matrix. Record ideas on class matrix with sticky notes from students.

Previewing (what, who, when):
Use the fire ants cards to demonstrate / think aloud how to complete the Matrix Graphic Organizer for invasive species. Based on the fire ants cards, describe how and why nonnative organisms become invasive species. Students write a summary explaining why use a Matrix Graphic Organizer.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Use Matrix Graphic Organizer with example created during preview. Provide paragraph numbers on the matrix to assist students with locating varying impacts of invasive species.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Written Conversations: How is kudzu like the classroom species you created in the Activating Strategy (describe the conditions that led to it becoming invasive)? One minute to write, one minute to exchange with a partner and provide feedback.

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

After reading about another invasive species, students will add to their matrix graphic organizer and then work in small groups to determine patterns that occur when organisms are out of place and create a visual display to communicate their findings. Students conduct a gallery walk to compare the patterns determined by each group and record any observations that may be different from your own.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Whole Group: Articles are assigned according to readiness levels.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Pass the Solution: Based on your new learning about patterns that occur when invasive species enter a new ecosystem, what might you suggest as a possible means of preventing the spread of these species, as well as how to possibly protect both people and the environment?

Learning Activity 4

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Remind students that evaluating the effects will help answer the Lesson Essential Question. Have students evaluate the effects that were recorded on their matrix (note that three different groups were impacted: the organism itself, other organisms and the environment, and humans). Introduce the R.A.F.T. as a way to synthesize information from different viewpoints. Pairs choose one of the R.A.F.T. prompts to complete. Form groups of 6 with different roles to share. Each group chooses one to share with the whole group.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Choose from the first two rows of the R.A.F.T. (audience and formats are less complex, while roles and topic remain aligned to required learning expectations).

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 4

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Work with a partner to create a PMI showing any positive effects, negative effects and intriguing effects.

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

Based on the patterns you have discerned and the correlating effects, which of the following approaches for dealing with the invasive species do you think would be the wisest:
Create effective mechanisms to prevent their introduction and/or early detection and rapid response to their presence
Or
Move rapidly to eradicate newly detected invaders
Justify your decision by using evidence that you have gathered from the articles, group presentations, and your graphic organizer.
Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:
Based on the patterns you have discerned and the correlating effects, which of the following approaches for dealing with the invasive species do you think would be the wisest:
Create effective mechanisms to prevent their introduction and/or early detection and rapid response to their presence by:
Establishing and strengthening federal policy restricting the importation of potentially damaging plant and animal species
Advocating for restoration funding in major ecosystems to repair the damage caused by existing invasive species
Educating people about the importance of using native plants and removing invasive species
Or

Move rapidly to eradicate newly detected invaders through:
Manual / mechanical control (digging, cutting, mowing)
Chemical control (pesticides, herbicides)
Biological control (natural enemies)
Justify your decision by using evidence that you have gathered from the articles, group presentations, and your graphic organizer.

Differentiated Assignment with More Challenge:
Include additional information in your analysis that explains how the other method may be improved upon so it is more effective. Use evidence from the articles, group presentations, and your graphic organizer to support your ideas.

Remediation:
Research an invasive species (may be assigned to students based on interest). Research must include species area of origin, how it was relocated, impacts on the environment, and approaches that have been used to limit its negative impact.

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