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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

9.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of literary texts including narratives, narrative nonfiction, poetry, and drama.
e) Explain the relationships between and among elements of literature: characters, plot, setting, tone, point of view, and theme.
W.9-10.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Analyze how literary techniques help to develop the tone
Infer the tone of the short story
Analyze how character development impacts story development
Analyze how elements of a short story (characters, setting and tone) support the theme development

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Authors use specific literary techniques (details, imagery, word choice) to develop characters, setting and tone.
Elements of a short story (characters, setting and tone) are related to developing the theme

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How do authors use elements of literature (characters, setting and tone) to help readers infer the theme of their writing?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Students will do a Quick Write. Prompt: Have you ever been introduced to a piece of technology that really freaked you out? What was it? How did it change you?”

Share responses with Collaborative Pairs partners.

Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
Tone
Setting
Character
Theme

Vocabulary Strategy:
Vocabulary Matrix

Previewing (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Provide a mini-lesson that provides examples for each of the literary elements. Students add examples and non-examples of each literary element to the matrix. Write a Note to an Absent Student that answers each question:
Why are each of these literary elements important?
How does an author express each element?

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Descriptions are provided to students on the matrix.

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Descriptive Organizer / Character Map

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Character Map – Provide example for each character.

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Read the first 2.5 pages of Ray Bradbury’s “The Veldt.” (The teacher will model annotating for word choice and details through the beginning of page 2.) With a partner, using different colored highlighters annotate the text for word choice that conveys the development of the tone and details that unveil the setting. Collaborate with another pair to complete Descriptive Organizers on both tone and setting. Share out with class. Students can add to or change their Descriptive Organizer during this discussion. (As we continue the story, students will continue to annotate for tone and setting adding to their Descriptive Organizer-gather and organize ideas).

Previewing (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Read a simple text with students and model through a Think Aloud how to select vivid language, image words and descriptive words for specific literary elements (start with setting and tone). Highlight words accordingly.

Numbered Heads: 1’s – What do these words have in common? 2’s – Why are the words an author chooses to use important?

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Provide examples of vivid language, image words and descriptive words for each literary element.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Using the completed graphic organizers, students will Pair Square and discuss the tone/setting of the story.

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Read the next three pages of the story. The students have now met the four main characters in the story-George, Lydia, Peter and Wendy.
Using the Character Map, choose one character and insert your character’s name in the graphic organizer. Find Someone Who chose the same character. With your partner, complete the Character Map. Chalk Talk-With your assigned partner, go to the poster on the wall that is assigned to your character and add the qualities that you and your partner determined. Add additional qualities that may have been discovered by other pairs to your Character Map- (gather and organize ideas). Review characters and qualities as a class.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Provide paragraph and page numbers for each character

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Write a letter to Ray Bradbury sharing how you feel your character impacted the story. You can tie it to either tone or setting. Be sure to include details from the story to support your analysis.

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Complete reading the story. Model via a Think Aloud to show students the process in thinking about elements of a short story (characters, setting, and tone) are related to the development of a theme. With a partner, Think-Ink-Share what you think the message that Ray Bradbury is communicating to the reader. Use examples from your graphic organizers to support your decision. Discuss as a class what the possible themes of the story could be.

Previewing (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Discuss how theme is the message of a story and provide a visual reminder (The Me_ssage). Generate a list of ideas for common themes. Add examples and nonexamples to the Vocabulary Matrix. Students should discuss what the theme is from the simple text. Provide a Summary frame that students will use to explain why they think it is the theme.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Students will use examples on the Vocabulary matrix to help them determine the theme. Also, provide students a Summary Frame for the Think-Ink-Share.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

RAFT: Role-Book/Story Reviewer, Audience-readers of fiction, Format-Book/Story Review, Topic-The message that the story imparts to the reader.

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

Ray Bradbury paints a picture of a futuristic society. Using details from the story, construct a written argument that supports how the author uses literary elements (characters, setting, tone) to support the theme of “The Veldt.

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:
Provide a writing frame to help students connect how the literary elements are used by Bradbury.

More Challenge: Determine which element used by the author contributes the most toward the development of the theme in the story and construct an argument that supports your ideas. Be sure to include evidence as to why the other elements used are less significant regarding the development of the theme.

Remediation: Use a more accessible text to argue how the author uses literary elements to support the development of theme.

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