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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

SKP2. Students will investigate different types of motion (b. push, pull, and roll common objects and describe their motions).
KW2: Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Push and pull objects
Describe the motion after pushes and pulls
Compare and contrast pushes and pulls
Explain how the amount of force affects the motion

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Force
Push
Pull
An object moves in the direction of the push or pull force

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How are objects affected by pushes and pulls?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Show the Winnie the Pooh video where Pooh gets stuck: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDm3NISSJyg

Ask students, What do you notice? (Looking for students to use the vocabulary push and pull). If students explain/show but don’t give the vocabulary, provide a prompt: “So, Pooh bear moved…”

Show a car or toy and ask, “What could you do to make it move?”
Reinforce vocabulary as students describe and show how to move items. As students mention words related to motion and force, list them on chart paper. Review the words at the end.

Guiding Questions: (Have students turn and talk as you ask the questions before calling on students to share answers. Listen for misconceptions and vocabulary as they talk to partners.)
What was the problem in the video?
What does it mean to be stuck?
Why do you think he was stuck?
What was Rabbit’s solution to the problem?

Students can model what Pooh’s friends did to move him.

Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
Force

Vocabulary Strategy: Word Web
After watching the Bill Nye video on forces, created a Word Web with the word “force” in the center. Students should recall what they learned about force in the video. Pause throughout the video to add to the web at appropriate places. Summarize the Word Web and define force: a pull or pull on an object. Keep the Word Web up throughout the lesson.

Previewing (what, who, when):
Whole Group: Vocabulary Preview
Direction – path along which an object moves
Towards – in the direction of
Away – moving to go farther from something

Give students a three-column chart with the vocabulary words, a place to define, and a place to draw an example. Have students move their bodies in the direction of away and towards different objects. Play a game with students by giving them a stuffed animal to move in the direction requested (move the animal toward you, away from you, toward your partner, etc.).

Define the words. Draw a picture on the chart of what each word would look like. Play a game with partners where each partner requests different directions to move the stuffed animals.

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Three-column chart with columns for “push,” “push and pull” and “pull.”

Previewing (what, who, when):
Whole Group: Students practice comparing and contrasting objects to create a chart like the one used in the lesson. They can use their stuffed animals and discuss ways they could sort them (fluffy, smooth, or both fluffy and smooth). Have students help identify attributes to create new sorts.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Begin by playing a game using familiar opposites like hot/cold, happy/sad, big/little, etc. Ask students to tell opposites related to or requiring motion: run/walk, fast/slow, stand/sit, open/close, zig-zag/straight, push/pull. This should be a quick game where students try to provide the opposite of the word you provide.

Explain that we are going to explore the opposite forces of push/pull a little more, and students will think of why it is considered an opposite. Tell your partner why you think it is an opposite.

Using scooters from the PE teacher, pair students so that they can push and pull students across the gym floor or on the court outside. The focus is to have students experience what happens when they push their partners (partner moves away from them). In Collaborative Pairs, 1’s tell 2’s what happens when they push their partner, 2’s tell 1’s what happens when they are pushed by their partner.

Then have students experience what happens when they pull their partner (moves towards them). In Collaborative Pairs, 1’s tell 2’s what happens when they pull their partner, 2’s tell 1’s what happens when they are pulled by their partner.

Students summarize by talking about how pushes and pulls are alike and different. Add their summaries to the anchor chart.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Strategically pair students to be able to summarize experiences.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Give students two index cards. Have the students write the word “push” on one and “pull” on the other. Students draw one example of a push on the “push” card and one example of a pull on the “pull” card. The cards should show how they are different. Pairs share their cards.

Scaffolding: Have students trace the words “push” and “pull” already written on index cards.

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Students share with their partners their experiences with the forces of pushes and pulls. Now that students have experienced the forces of push and pull, they are ready to look for more examples. Share the PowerPoint of examples of pushes and pulls and the standard definitions. Allow students to turn and talk to describe why each slide is a push or pull. Have students explain how they know. List a few examples in each column on the graphic organizer.

Show the video clip again where Rabbit is pushing and Christopher Robin, Roo, and Eeyore are pulling Pooh: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDm3NISSJyg (Begin at 1:40). 1’s tell 2’s why one character is pushing, 2’s tell 1’s why one character is pulling. What would happen if Rabbit pulled and the others pushed? Discuss in partners, then share whole group. Would this solve the problem? Lead the students in the discovery that the force applied should depend on the direction you want the object to go. This can be modeled with an object if needed.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Students will use their push and pull index cards to demonstrate their understanding of pushes and pulls. Share the book “Sheep in a Jeep” by Nancy Shaw. A video reading is available online. Pause throughout the reading to have students hold up their “push” card if the sheep are pushing, and their “pull” card if they are pulling.

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Show students toys and objects that they used earlier in the lesson. Ask them to hold up their “push” and “pull” cards as you hold each toy/object up. Is it put in motion by a push, a pull, or both? Sort the items as the students identify.

Move to the gym or court again to explore how forces affect the pushes and pulls on the scooters. The focus now is on how the amount of force affects the motion. Have students sit in pairs facing one another closely on scooters, and place the palms of their hands out in front touching each other. On the count of three, push against each other with a hard push. What happened? Do it again, but push very lightly. What happened? What can we conclude? Have students push and pull each other with different amounts of force.
What can we conclude about how the amount of force affects pushes and pulls? Write their summary on the anchor chart.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Provide sentence stems for summaries.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Give pairs of students a ball to roll back and forth to each other. Ask the students to make a ball go fast and then slow. Have the students talk about what they did to make the ball go faster and slower. Pairs discuss the motion of the ball with different forces. Students should write the answer to the following question as a ticket out the door: How did you make the ball or scooter roll faster? (Provide sentence stems for summaries if necessary.)

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

You have been hired by Fisher Price to build a new toy which must move without batteries or electricity. How will you make it move? Provide directions to go with your toy. Your directions should include the name of the toy, how to move the toy, how the push or pull affects the toy, and how to adjust the speed of the toy.

Encourage the students to refer to the three-column chart that we created throughout the lesson for ideas.)

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:
Provide students with a toy, and direct them to describe it as though they invented it and built it. Students will write the directions for their toy independently, although sentence frames will be provided for the details of the directions.

Differentiated Assignment for More Challenge:
Introduce the first step in the Scientific Method by having students think of and record a “I Wonder…” statement(s) about push and pull forces. Model and think aloud an example to help them begin. Also provide a sentence frame: I wonder what would happen if__________?

Remediation:
Pushes and Pulls Hunt: Put together a list of items that require a push, pull, or both to operate or use. For example, you might list a door that needs to be pushed to open, a box with a top that needs to be pulled off, or a pencil, which requires both a push and a pull. Send small groups on a scavenger hunt around the classroom to find the items. They should sketch the item, describe its position or location in the school, and describe each item’s position.

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