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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

Power Standard: SC.8.N.1.2. Design and conduct a study using repeated trials and replication.

N.1.3. Use phrases such as “results support” or “fail to support” in science, understanding that science does not offer conclusive ‘proof’ of a knowledge claim. (Assessed as S.C.8.N.1.1)

LAFS.8.W.1.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Identify key scientific phrases such as “results support”, “fail to support”, evidence, and “proof” of a knowledge claim.

Describe proof using scientific phrases and evidence.

Differentiate between proof and evidence.

Write to justify claims from an informational science text.

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Key scientific phrases
proof
evidence
claims

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How do scientists use proof and evidence to support claims?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Introduce the Lesson Essential Question. Discuss the words proof and claims. Remind students that in the past they have learned about evidence and what evidence is (data, facts, quotes). Students will now learn how to use proof and evidence to support claims.

Introduce a popular and controversial claim such as, ‘The Earth is Round’.
Display images and explain that this is a current controversial claim as recently people argue that the Earth is flat.
In collaborative partners, have students brainstorm and write ideas of evidence.
Pairs Square: Pairs will share brainstorm ideas with another pair.

Discuss as a class and add ideas of evidence to anchor chart. Show video clip explaining evidence that proves the Earth is round.
Add examples that were not identified by students to anchor chart. Be sure to emphasize that all pieces of evidence factored together prove that the Earth is round.

Lettered Heads Talk: In your opinion, which piece of evidence is most significant in regards to proving the Earth is round?
Discuss and share with partner.
(Teacher will display language frame to support speaking and listening).
Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
proof

Vocabulary Strategy:
Word Map

Previewing (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Preview Word Map for evidence.

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Constructing Arguments Graphic Organizer

Previewing (what, who, when):
Demonstrate how to complete the graphic organizer with the following claim, “Smartphones Support Classrooms’ with supporting article.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

With collaborative partner, students partner read two informational articles highlighting evidence.

Article 1: Partner 1 will read and highlight evidence, while partner 2 identifies if the evidence “supports” or “fails to support” the proof of a knowledge claim.
Article 2: Reverse Roles

Pairs Square:
Pairs will share their evidence from each article and whether each piece of evidence “supports” or “fails to support” the proof of a knowledge claim.
(Teacher will display language frames to support speaking and listening).

Come back as a class, and discuss the found evidence and if the evidence “supports” or “fails to support” the proof of a knowledge claim.
Article 1- “Fails to support”
Article 2- “Supports with evidence” and “proof” of a knowledge claim.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Provide one example per article of evidence that “supports” and “fails to support”.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Quick Write (Two minutes): How did the evidence found in Article 2 support proof of a knowledge claim?

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

The teacher will introduce the two terms evidence and proof to the class.
The teacher will ask the following to collaborative partners and write down responses:
Partner A: What is similar regarding these two terms?
Partner B: What is different regarding these two terms?
Share responses with partner.
Discuss as a class and teacher will record student responses on anchor chart.

The teacher will model and think aloud for how to differentiate evidence and proof with specific examples containing data, theories, facts, etc.

In collaborative partners, students will read and categorize the remaining examples as proof or evidence.

Think-Ink-Share:
Partner A: Why are these examples proof?
Partner B: Why are these examples evidence?
(Teacher will utilize timer. Allow for 1-2 minutes depending on need of group).

Discuss as a class and categorize examples on anchor chart.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Write a $3.50 summary to explain the difference between proof and evidence.

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Teacher will refer to Constructing Arguments Anchor Chart and Graphic Organizer. Teacher will present the steps to constructing an argument. Each student will have a blank graphic organizer for guided notes.
Teacher will introduce the article. In collaborative pairs, students will alternate reading paragraphs while highlighting evidence that may “support”, “fail to support”, and/or “proof” of a knowledge claim.

Written Conversations-
Partner A: What evidence was provided in the article to support the claims made?
Partner B: Did the evidence you found justify the claims made in the article?

Discuss and share as a class. Teacher will add to graphic organizer and collaborative pairs will check partners for accuracy.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Struggling Students: Provide one example for reasons and facts for the graphic organizer from article.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Distributed Summary: Which pieces of evidence justify and support claims made from the informational science text and why?

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

Using the Constructing Arguments graphic organizer, write a letter to the editor of a popular science magazine arguing the validity of a knowledge claim made in a recently published article.

Include the following criteria:
Key scientific phrases such as “results support” or “fail to support”.
Evidence
Proof

Refer to the Constructing Arguments Signal Words Anchor Chart and Constructing Arguments Rubric.

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:

Provide students with the evidence from the article.
Provide writing frames to support the validity of a knowledge claim.

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