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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

R.I.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea
W 3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Explain how to use the infer thinking strategy.

Distinguish between important and unimportant details

Infer the main idea of the text using supporting details

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Main Idea
Summarize
Infer
Evidence
Conclusion

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How do I infer the main idea of a text using details?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Present several riddles to the students that require them to use clues to solve…ex… “People use me to mail cards, Philatelists collect me….What am I?

Solve as a class….point out clues that led to the inference and clues that were not important. Use this activity to refer back to the essential question.

After completing the riddles, we will identify the important details and I will model how those details were used to answer the riddle. It will be pointed out that the same way details were used to solve the riddle, details can be used to infer the main idea of a given text.
Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):

Key Vocabulary:
Infer
Evidence
Conclusion

Vocabulary Strategy:
Word Map – Infer; explicitly teach Evidence and Conclusion through the Word Map (what is it like)

Previewing (what, who, when) All students will work with the teacher as she models how to complete a Word Map for the term infer. They will provide descriptors for “examples” and “what it is like”. The definition will not be written until after the Activating Strategy and Learning Activity 1 have been completed. This will be previewed a few days prior to the start of the lesson.

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Flower Pot Graphic Organizer – Inference

Infer Anchor Chart

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
I will model think aloud strategies using a picture (identifying details) and then a passage to guide students’ thinking. Then they will be provided a partially completed Graphic Organizer for students to complete. This will be done with a small group of students.

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Use the infer anchor charts and graphic organizer to introduce the concept.

Discuss the steps of inference and how they relate to main idea.

Model a think aloud for “Bats” and show how the steps in the thinking process are being followed.

Think-Pair-Share: 1’s tell 2’s what is means to infer. 2’s tell 1’s how to infer by summarizing the steps in the process. Write what students know about inference on a Graffiti Wall.

Previewing (what, who, when):
Work with students in a small group to complete a cloze
paragraph where they appropriately fill in the blanks for steps to infer based on the anchor chart.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Say it in Six Summary: Students will write a six word summary explaining what infer is and how it relates to main idea

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Model a think aloud to find elements of main idea, with special emphasis that the main idea is not always stated, but important details from the text can lead to the main idea.

Paragraph strips – cut paragraphs into strips. Sort details according to important and unimportant to understanding the main idea.

Project the same paragraphs on the screen (one paragraph at a time) and underline the important and unimportant details in different colors to show the distinction.

Use post-it notes to add descriptors to the graphic organizer
Students will complete a Think-Ink-Share explaining why important details lead to the inference that allows them to identify and understand the main idea

Previewing (who, what, when):
All students will look at a video clip of a commercial. Important and unimportant details will be recorded and the teacher will use think aloud strategies to help students use the details to make inferences in order to predict the main idea conveyed through the commercial.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Students will complete a Think-Ink-Share explaining why important details lead to the inference that allows them to identify and understand the main idea

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Pairs will be assigned different paragraphs from selected informational texts. They will answer a series of questions about the text.
What are the important details?
How do you know?
How can I put those details together?
What is the likely conclusion?
How did they help you determine the main idea of the text?

After determining the important details, they will discuss what the details of the assigned paragraph have in common and state the main idea.

Scaffolding (what, who, when): Choices for main ideas will be provided and students will determine the correct answer.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Students will write 3 facts and a fib about using inference to determine main idea.

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

Read a given passage and follow the steps to infer the main idea. Use your completed graphic organizer to write a script in which you share the concept, what you inferred, and the details that led you to the main idea from the passage you were given.
All students will have the option of presenting their script to the class.

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:
Provide a “script” writing frame to help students connect the concepts from the completed graphic organizer to the main idea inferred from the passage given to read.

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