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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.
SL.9-10.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
W.9-10.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

-Identify words and phrases with strong connotations an author uses in a text
-Use patterns between key words and phrases to make predictions about the author’s tone.
-Analyze the impact of specific word choices on tone and meaning

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

Review:
Diction- choice and use of words in speech or writing
Denotation- the explicit or direct meaning of a word as found in a dictionary
Connotation- associations implied by a specific word
Author’s Meaning- the author’s reason for writing (the author’s intent for writing a piece) and the way it is conveyed to achieve that meaning
New:
Tone- the writer’s attitude toward their topic. Note: The author reveals his (or her) attitude through the selection of words he uses to describe the subject. It is important for students to know that the tone can be determined by analyzing not only the word choice (also called diction) but the author’s use of imagery, details, and sentence structure (syntax). This lesson will focus on word choice.

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How do authors use diction to reveal the tone and meaning of a literary text?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

-Review of Diction:
Each student will be given a word from the list below. Each student will have one of the words on this list. He/she will need to draw a picture to represent the word and write the denotative and connotative meaning of the word.

Students will then get up and find other people in the class who have related words. As a group, they will come to a consensus on the connotations of their words. Are they all positive, all negative, or a mix of both?
Groups will then share out whole class.
Corpulent, plump, obese, pudgy, heavy-set, fleshy, fat, paunchy, burly, overweight, roly-poly, bulky, portly, beefy
Mansion, abode, dwelling, domicile, residence, house, home, habitat Hurl, throw, pitch, chuck, toss, fling, cast
Arrogant, stuck-up, conceited, cocky, vain, proud, self-satisfied, egotistical, overbearing, supercilious
Cheat, phony, con man, fraud, charlatan, operator, crook, imposter, quack, swindler
Bizarre, singular, far out, outlandish, off the wall, curious, odd, unusual, extraordinary, remarkable, noteworthy, strange, eerie
Titter, giggle, chuckle, laugh, guffaw, roar, snicker, snigger, cackle Saving, tight, miserly, frugal, economical, careful, penurious, thrifty, penny-pinching, budget-minded, prudent, mean
Honest, straight, on the level, veracious, guileless, unaffected, artless, genuine, candid, truthful, sincere

The teacher will introduce tone by asking each group whether they feel like an author using their terms would have felt positively or negatively about what he/she was describing.

Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
Tone

Vocabulary Strategy:
Explicitly teaching the term “tone” using the graphic organizer but also familiarizing students with words that can be used to describe tone. The teacher will provide students with the following resource and discuss the meanings of the terms in it:
Tone Vocabulary.

Previewing (what, who, when):
The matrix graphic organizer on diction and tone. Fill in the first part of the matrix using the sentence “The oppressive heat choked the life out of the plants.”

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Vocabulary: Tone

 

Determining Patterns:

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Lesson on Tone:
-The teacher will ask the class, “Have you ever had your mom or teacher say to you, “don’t use that tone of voice with me!”? What did they mean by that?
-The teacher will explain tone using an interactive video clip and lecture.
-The teacher will model for students how to fill in the graphic organizer on tone.
-Students will work with their shoulder partners to finish filling in the graphic organizer.

Previewing (what, who, when):
The matrix graphic organizer on tone and diction. Students will finish filling in the example with the sentence on heat this time working with the teacher to determine the author’s tone based on the words he/she uses in that sentence.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Partial fill in of the graphic organizer on tone.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

-Using their graphic organizer, students will write an acrostic poem using the word TONE to explain what it means. Students may use words or phrases that start with each letter of the word TONE.

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

The teacher will give each student a copy of Alice Walker’s poem “Women” in Actively Learn. Students will read this poem, highlight key words and phrases and write annotations summarizing what the author is talking about at that point in the poem. Students will also need to include pictures for visualization. The teacher will model this with the first few lines of the poem and then students will work with their shoulder partners to complete.

Working together with the teacher, students will share out the key words and phrases they highlighted and these will be filled in together on the matrix graphic organizer.

Students will turn to their partners and discuss whether these are all positive or negative connotations. Students will share out their feelings whole class.

Previewing (what, who, when):

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Line numbers on the graphic organizers. Some students will also have extra help notes in Actively Learn.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Students will write a note to an absent student explaining at least 4 of the key words and phrase Alice Walker used when describing women.

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

The teacher will use the “Heat” example from the top of the matrix to show students how to make patterns to determine tone. She will also reference back to the making inferences anchor chart.

-Alice Walker’s poem “Women” continued:

Students will then work together with their shoulder partners using the matrix graphic organizer and then Tone Vocabulary guide to help them determine Alice Walker’s tone.

Students will choose a partner to share out their findings with the class supporting their findings with evidence from their graphic organizer.

Previewing (what, who, when):
Going over Tone Vocabulary and practicing how to use it as a guide to determining and describing author’s tone.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):
Give students a word bank from the Tone Vocabulary sheet to limit their choices.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

CAST: Connatation, Attitude, Shift, Theme. Students will write one sentence for each of these elements using the poem “Women” by Alice Walker.. Connotation: What connotative meaning does each of the words the author uses have? Attitude: What was the implied tone based on the words used? Shift: Where do these terms change and why? Theme: How does the author’s use of tone and diction help communicate her message about women?
Students will turn to their shoulder partners and answer the following question: “How could an author’s tone and diction help them get their message across?

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

In Actively Learn, read and annotate “I Sit and Look Out” by Walt Whitman. Use the graphic organizer to look for patterns between the words/phrases and to determine the tone of the poem. Write an expository essay analyzing how the author’s word choice reveals the tone and meaning of this poem citing specific and thorough evidence in the text for support. 

 

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:

 

In Actively Learn, read and annotate “I Sit and Look Out” by Walt Whitman. Highlight at least 4-5 key words and phrases and explain their connotative meanings. Use the graphic organizer to look for patterns between the words/phrases and to determine the tone of the poem. Use the Explanatory Writing Frame to assist you in writing an essay analyzing how the author’s word choice reveals the tone and meaning of this poem citing specific and thorough evidence in the text for support. 

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