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Planning Step 1: Lesson Curriculum: What are the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Lesson Standards

Always include a writing standard.

SSUSH11: The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business. b. Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor. c. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies d. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life

W2: Write informative/explanatory text to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts and information clearly and accurately thoroughly the effect selection, organization and analysis of content.

Students Will Be Able To… (Do)

  • Skills from standards including thinking (cognitive verbs).
  • This is not activities.
  • One or more goals should be Higher Order Thinking (Levels of Learning 3 or 4), and/or Reading Comprehension.
  • Sequence these goals in the order in which they should be learned.

Summarize the how big businesses were formed
Analyze the relationship between big business on the expansion of the west
Analyze the relationships between railroads, the steel industry and other industries
Write explanatory text to convey complex ideas using information correctly

Students Will Know

Knowledge from standards such as vocabulary, facts, formulas.

impact of railroad expansion
steel industry
big business

Lesson Essential Question

  • A question that communicates the Learning Goals.
  • Reflect the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal(s).

How did the expansion of the railroad impact industries and big businesses?

Planning Step 3: Lesson Instruction: How will students learn?

Activating Strategy

  • Plan this after you plan your Learning Activities. How will you introduce the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you draw attention to important vocabulary in the Lesson Essential Question?
  • How will you build/link background knowledge?
  • What prerequisite content might students need to know before the lesson?
  • >Which key vocabulary from the Learning Goals needs to be explicitly taught?
  • Are there other vocabulary words that you think need to be taught?
  • Which vocabulary strategy will you use?
  • Previewing:
    • Advance Organizer
    • Prerequisite Content
    • Vocabulary

Introduce Essential Question–How did the expansion of the railroad impact industries and big businesses?

Read the following to students:
In a period of less than 50 years it was transformed from a rural republic to an urban nation. The frontier vanished. Great factories and steel mills, transcontinental railroad lines, flourishing cities, and vast agricultural holdings marked the land. With this economic growth and affluence came corresponding problems.

Think-Ink-Share: Predict what some problems may occur as a result. Record on chart paper to display in room. Each group will share prediction with class.

Direct students to focus on impact the railroad had on related businesses, the west, towns and people.

Key Vocabulary (for explicit instruction):
big business, steel industry

Vocabulary Strategy: Word Map

Previewing (what, who, when): Preview Word Map using monopolies

Graphic Organizer

  • How will students store and organize information as they learn during this lesson?
  • Base the organizer on the Higher Order Thinking or Reading Comprehension in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals.
  • Determine how the organizer will be previewed for struggling students.
  • Determine how the organizer will be scaffolded for struggling students.

Fishbone Organizer

Previewing (what, who, when): Preview Fishbone Organizer and analyzing relationships thinking process

Model the analyzing relationships thinking process using an anchor chart with pictures of fictional characters and a fishbone organizer. Students will use characters as the details. With a shoulder partner they will then analyze for relationships. Together we will discuss the relationships among characters.

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Learning Activity 1

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Lecture with PowerPoint about the factors that lead to the organization of big business.

Students should complete the graphic organizer during lecture.

Numbered Heads: 1s–What do you feel is the most important factor that lead to big business? 2s–What do you feel was the impact of that factor?

Lecture with PowerPoint about how big businesses were formed.

Think-Pair-Write: Write a brief summary of how big businesses were formed. Turn to your partner and share your summary. 1’s go first.

Scaffolding (what, who, when): Provide slide numbers for points to complete the graphic organizer.

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Take a Stand–divide class into groups based on the number of factors presented. Each group will have to create a stand and argue why the factor assigned to their group most impacted the organization of big business.

Learning Activity 2

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

Think Aloud the steps involved in analyzing a relationship using the anchor chart.

Based on the information already completed in the graphic organizer, in table groups of four, have students discuss and predict the impact of big business on the expansion of the west completing the graphic organizer.

Each group discusses their predictions. Individually decide which prediction is the most important. Have students defend
why using a two-minute opinion debate.

Previewing (what, who, when): Preview how to form an analogy with Think Aloud and using a safe content:

car:road::train:track

Scaffolding (what, who, when):

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Create an analogy:

big business:west::_______:________

Share and explain analogies by doing a Walkabout.

Learning Activity 3

The Learning Goal(s) for this Learning Activity and Assessment Prompt:

Consider:

  • Explicitly teach Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Strategy (if didn’t in a previous Learning Activity)
  • Content students need to learn
  • Chunk activity:
    • Several opportunities for thinking, talking, writing to learn
    • Distributed summarizing and/or practice
    • Questions to ask
    • Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Questions to ask
  • Active engagement:
    • Collaborative Pairs, Numbered Heads, Think-Pair-Share, etc.
    • Variety
    • Movement
  • Previewing prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Scaffolding content and process

In pairs, have students use Conversation Cards to brainstorm the meaning of the illustration below.

What do you see in the political cartoon?
What is most important about this cartoon?
Do you think what is drawn is actually the message the artist wants you to get from the illustration?
Do you think there is a deeper meaning/message that the artist is trying to convey to his audience?
What message do you think this illustration is saying?

Share discussions with the class.

Based on information provided in PowerPoints, information recorded on the graphic organizer and the information shared about the illustration do a Written Conversation explaining what you feel is the relationship between the railroad, the steel industry and other big business.
Exchange with your partner to respond.
Discuss your conversation.

Previewing (what, who, when): Preview whole group how to analyze a political cartoon using safe content.
What do you see in the political cartoon?
What is most important about this cartoon?
Do you think what is drawn is actually the message the artist wants you to get from the illustration?
Do you think there is a deeper meaning/message that the artist is trying to convey to his audience?
What message do you think this illustration is saying?

Scaffolding (what, who, when): What is important about the man with the money bags? Why do you feel he is standing on another man?

Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3

  • Formative assessment of the Learning Goal(s).
  • Ensure the task meets the expectation of the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension Learning Goal.
  • Remediate: What is an additional learning opportunity for students who did not master the Learning Goal(s) before proceeding?

Write a letter to an absent student explaining how the railroad expansion impacted the steel industry as well as other industries.

Planning Step 2: Lesson Assessment: How will students demonstrate understanding of the Learning Goals for this lesson?

Assignment

  • Plan this before planning Lesson Instruction.
  • How will students demonstrate their knowledge of the Will Know Learning Goals and the skills in the Will Be Able To… (Do) Learning Goals (especially the Higher Order Thinking and/or Reading Comprehension)?
  • How will the Assignment be differentiated for support and challenge?
  • Which students receive differentiation?
  • For students who struggle with the Assignment, how will you remediate this lesson?

Write a news article informing readers about how the expansion of the railroad impacted industries and big businesses. Use details and patterns recorded in your graphic organizer and discuss what impact it will have on citizens, the landscape, and the environment.

Differentiated Assignment for Struggling Students:

Write a news article informing readers about how the expansion of the railroad impacted industries and big businesses. Use details and patterns recorded in your graphic organizer and discuss what impact it will have on citizens, the landscape, and the environment.
Be sure to include the words steel industry, big business, and railroad expansion. Make sure your news article includes the 5 Ws.

Who is involved and/or impacted?
What is the most important information you need to share with readers?
When is this event/story occurring?
Where is the event/story occurring?
Why is this an important event to citizens of this area?

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